Sassanian seals

Sassanian seals and bullae

back to Central Asia


  1. Ahmad Saeedi Collection
  2. Amān-ar-Raḥmān  Collections in Dubai and Islamabad
  3. Bibliothéque National de France: collection of Sasanian seals and bullae
  4. Bibliothéque National et du Musée du Louvre: collection of Sasanian seals and bullae
  5. Bullae from the Pahlavi Archive at the University of California, Berkeley
  6. Institute of History of the Turkmenistan Academy of Science, Ashgabat: 39 bullae [more than 100 bullae found from Aq-tepe in southern Turkmenistan in 1963-78. The site was excavated by A.G. Gubaev. These bullaes are dated to late 6th-first half of the 7th century CE. most of them disappeared. These bullaes show the presence of the Sasanian administration in Marw, Sarakhs and Abivard till the Arab arrival].
  7. Khoy Collection: 164 objects of which 154 are Sasanian bullae (it contains some of lost Moshiri’s bullase)
  8. Mohsen Foroughi Collection of Sasanian Seals and bullae
  9. Moshiri Collection of Sasanian seals
  10. New discovered bullae from Artashat , Armenia: 870  (87 bullae from this collection arrived in August 26, 2017  to the University of California, Irvine)
  11. Sasanian Seals in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York


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Akbarzadeh, D., C.G. Cereti C. and F. Sinisi. 2009. Glyptic Antitqutits from the Museum of Khoy in Western Azerbaijan, Iran. RepMem, New Series, VIII, Rome.

Akbarzadeh, D., C.G. Cereti C. and F. Sinisi. 2010. Seals and Sealings in the A. Saeedi Collection, Perliminary Notes on the Collection of Sasanian Bullae held in Khoy. Iranian Identity in the Course of History: proceeding of the Cinference Held in Rome, 21-24 September, 2005. Orientalia Romana series 9 (Roma: Instituto Italiano Per L’Africa E  L’Oriente).

Amān-ar-Raḥmān . et all. 2011. Seals, Sealings and Tokens from Bactria to Gandhara 4th to 8th Century Ce: Studies in the Aman Ur Rahman Collection: 2. Osterreichische Akademie Der … Der Numismatischen Kommission 52.

Amān-ar-Raḥmān and H. Falk. 2011. Seals, Sealings and Tokens from Gandhara. Monographien Zur Indischen Archaologie, Kunst Und Philologie.

Azarpay, G. 2003. ‘Bullae from the Pahlavi Archive at the University of California, Berkeley’, in M. Compareti and et all. (eds.), Eran ud Aneran. Studies Presented to Boris Ilich Marshak on the Occasions of His 70th Birthday Transoxiana Webfestschift Series I. Webfestschrif Marshak

Brunner, C.J. 1978. Sasanian Seals in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York.

Chosky, J.K. 1988. ‘Loans and seals contracts in ancient and early medieval Iran’, Indo-Iranian Journal 31:191-218.

Fry, R. N (ed.). 1973. Sasanian Remains from Qasri Abu Nasr: Seals, Sealins and Coins. Cambridge.

Frye, R.N. 1971. Sasanian Seals in the Collection of Mohsen Foroughi, Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum part 3: Pahlavi inscriptions 5: Seals and Coins. London.

Gignoux, Ph. 1986. ‘Noms propres sassanides en moyen-perse épigraphique’, Iranisches Personennamenbuch 2/2 no.115: 87.

Gignoux, Ph. 1978. Catalogue de sceaux, camées et bulles Sassanides de la Bibliothéque National et du Musée du Louvre, II. Les sceaux et bulles inscrits, Paris.

Göbl, R. 1976. Die Tonbullen vom Tacht-i Suleiman: Ein Beitrag zur spätsasnidischen Sphragistik, Berlin.

Gorelick, L., and A. John Gwinnet. 1996. ‘Innovative Methods in the Manufacture of Sasanian Seals’, Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 34: 79-85.

Gubae, A. G. 1977. ‘Raskopki 1971 goda na Ak-depe’, Karakumskiye Drevnosti V. Ashkhabad, 61-67.

Gubae, A. G. 1974. ‘Raskopki zamka Ak-depe’, Arkeologicheskie otkrytiya 1973, 503-504.

Gubae, A. G. 1971. ‘Raskopki zamka Ak-depe’, Arkeologicheskie otkrytiya 1970, 438.

Gubae, A. and G.A. Koshelenko. ‘Issledovania parfyanskogo svyatilishcha mansur-depe i rannersrednevekovo zamka Ak-depe’, KD III, 95-100.

Gubae, A. and L.A. Lebekov. 1970. ‘Bully sasandskogo perioda iz Ak-depe’,  Karakumskiye Drevnosti III, 105-107.

Gubaev, A.G., S.D. Loginov and A.B. Nikitin. 1996. ‘Sasainian Bullae from Excavations of Ak-Depe by the Station of Artyk’, Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 34: 55-61.

Gyselen, R. 2007. Sasanian Seals and Sealings in the A. Saeedi Collection (Acta Iranica: Encylopédie Permanente Des Études Iraniennes: 44, Peeters.

Huff, D. 1987. ‘Technological Observations on clay bullae from Takht-i Suleiman’, Mesopotamia XXII, 367-390.

Lerner, J. 2017. ‘From Bactrian to Arabic: Changes in Seals and Sealing Practices as Observed in Bactrian Documents’,

Nikitin, A.B. ‘The Sasanian Shahrab of Balkh’, Ancinet Civilizations 1, 3: 365-368.

Lerner, J., and N. Sims-Williams. 2011. Seals, Sealings, and Tokens from Bactria to Gandhara (4th to 8th century CE)’, in J. Lerner and M. Alram (eds.), Studies in the Aman ur Rahman Collection 2. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.

Lerner, J. ‘Animal Headdresses on the Sealings of the Bactrian Documents’.

Lerner, J. ‘Sasanian Seals in the Department of Medieval and Later Antiquities of the British Museum’,

Lerner, J. 2010. ‘Observations on the Typology and Style of Seals and Sealings from Bactria and the Indo-Iranian Borderlands’, in M. Alram, D. Klimburg-Salter, et al. (eds.), Coins, Art and Chronology II. The First Millennium CE in the Indo-Iranian Borderlands Vienna: ÖAW, 245-266.

Lerner, J. 1977. ‘Christian seals of the Sasanian period’, Uitgavenvan het Nederlands Historisch-archaeologisch Institut te Istanbul XLI, No. 377, 39-40.

Sinisi, F. 2008. ‘Another Seal of the Sasanian Wiwan’, East and West 58, No.1-4: 377- 383.

Torrry, Ch. 1932. ‘Pehlevi seal inscriptions from Yale collections’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 52/3: 201-207.

Lukonin, V. 1960. ‘Sasanidskiye bully’, Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha XIX, Leningrad, 32-35.